Toxicological assessment of closed municipal solid-waste landfill impact to the environment
The large number of municipal solid waste landfills in Lithuania poses a serious environmental threat to the quality of soil, surface and ground water. The physicochemical characteristics and toxicity of closed Panevėžys municipal solid-waste landfill leachate and its impact to soil and surface water were assessed. Landfill leachate is complex mixture of various inorganic and organic compounds. The toxicity of municipal solid waste landfill leachate and surface water was evaluated using bioassays with aquatic plants (Lemna minor L.) and microinvertebrates (Daphnia magna). The leachate was shown to be toxic to D. magna, reduced the growth and biomass of L. minor. The toxicity has been linked with ammonium and heavy metals content as the prime contributors to the toxicity.