Phytoremediation Investigating Herbaceous Plants and Their Rhizosphere Microorganisms in the Mixture of Wood Sawdust of Used Sleepers and Soil Fertilised with Nitrogen
The studies were carried out in the period of 2013–2014 in experiment developed during plant vegetation, cultivating five plant species in the vegetative pots with the substrate contaminated with used sleepers (US) and uncontaminated substrate fertilised with nitrogenous fertilisers. The objective of the research is to analyse the morphological features of aboveground and underground parts of herbaceous plants and determine the dependence of the number of fungi and bacteria colonies in the rhizosphere of these plants and the substrate contaminants and the impact of nitrogenous fertiliser concentration; with reference to that, determine the feasibility of these plants for phytoremediation. A tolerant plant was found, i.e. Tagetes patula L. as a phytoremediator, which adapted to grow in the condition of contaminated and fertilised substrate with nitrogen, and suitable for cultivating it in similar edaphic conditions. An intolerant plant, i.e. Trifolium repens L. as a phytoindicator, is a perennial, herbaceous plant of Fabaceae Lindl. Family, the rhizosphere of which contains the maximum number of fungi and bacteria colonies in the occurrence of the maximum concentration of nitrogenous fertilisers and contaminants. These bacteriological and mycological processes, as well as the excess of nitrogen, have negative impact on the growth of aboveground and underground parts of Trifolium repens.