Multi-Criteria Analysis of Waste-to-Energy Technologies in Developed and Developing Countries
The main objective of this paper is to utilize a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to evaluate Waste-to-Energy (WTE) technologies and identify constraints when examining the placement of a WTE facility. From this, the focus is best summarized by determining the optimal WTE technology in developed countries and how the process would change if implemented in developing nations. In this study, incineration, gasification, and pyrolysis technologies were reviewed and evaluated. The MCA evaluated the different WTE technologies based on a variety of criteria considering environmental, financial, social, technical, and waste quality and quantity. Different weighted factors were used for the two MCAs and different alternative weighted factor scenarios were produced to perform a sensitivity analysis on the results. Overall, pyrolysis was found to be the preferred option for the developed and the developing nation in all scenarios. For developed countries, the highest difference in the overall index score (7 %) was found in incineration between the baseline and scenario 4. In developing countries, the highest differences in the overall index scores were found in scenario 3 for incineration (9 %) and pyrolysis (10 %). Although pyrolysis had the highest overall capital cost due to it being the newest technology, the environmental, social, associated risk, and waste benefits were seen to be more significant on the findings.