A The Typicality of Hydrothermal Conditions of the Forest Steppe and Their Influence on the Productivity of Crops
Keywords:hydrothermal conditions, moisture accumulation, hydrothermal coefficient, vegetation period, productivity of agricultural crops.
Analysis of changes in hydrothermal conditions of growing crops in the forest steppe zone of Ukraine over a period of 2004–2016 showed that by the average monthly air temperature more than a half of the years under study and by rainfall nearly a third of the researched period differed significantly from the average long-term value and were close to extreme weather. Statistical analysis of long-term indicators of the air temperature regime is evidence of a steady trend towards an increase in average annual air temperature with significant fluctuations in indices in separate periods from 7.9 ± 2.9 to 10.0 ± 2.5oС and a decrease in the amount and instability of natural moisture entry.
The influence of weather conditions on the formation of productivity of spiked cereals (winter and spring wheat, spring barley) and maize was assessed at the current agrometeorological risks in the forest steppe of Ukraine. Based on the correlation-regression analysis, mathematical models were created that reproduce the dependence of grain yields upon the complex weather conditions of the growing season, the impact of which reached 60–70%. The conditions of eight years (2006–2008, 2011–2014 and 2016), when the hydrothermal index for the vegetation period was 1.13–1.76, turned out to be optimal by hydrothermal indicators to harvest maize yield at 5.83–9.47 t/ha. However, the years of 2005, 2009–2010 and 2015 were unfavorable as they received precipitation by 120 mm lower than a norm or 36% of the norm. The rainfall by 37–61% lower than a norm in June–July and grain yield 3.12–6.51 t/ha were also characteristic of the years mentioned above.
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