The System Dynamic of Mangrove Ecotourism of “Kampung Blekok” Situbondo East Java Indonesia: Economic and Ecological Dimension




Mangrove, Ecotourism, system dynamic, Economy, ecology


Mangroves that grow in coastal areas have ecological and economic values. Research on the behavior of a mangrove ecotourism system is needed as a basis for management to provide sustainable benefits. This study aimed to describe the conceptualization of a mangrove ecotourism system, formulate a mangrove ecotourism model and formulate a scenario for Kampung Blekok mangrove ecotourism in Situbondo Regency. This study used a quantitative analysis with a dynamic system approach to see the behavior of the ecotourism system on the economic and ecological dimensions. The research results on the conceptualization of the ecotourism system with causal loop diagrams showed that the economic subsystem was composed of response variables in the form of ecotourism management income and community business income in ecotourism areas and gross regional domestic product. Meanwhile, the ecological subsystem consisted of response variables in mangroves’ death, planting, and rehabilitation. Model formulation with stock-flow diagrams demonstrated the relationship between response variables to explain the system. In the economic subsystem, the variable of community business acceptance had the highest sensitivity that could affect ecotourism income. While in the ecological subsystem, the highest sensitivity was on the variable of mangrove planting, which could affect the density of mangroves. The combination of economic subsystem scenarios optimized tourist visits and streamlined spending. The combination of ecological subsystem scenarios that became the priority was the addition of mangrove seedlings and controlling pests that caused the death of mangrove seedlings. Stakeholders are expected to synergize with each other in managing activities in ecotourism. Apart from exploiting their economic potential, the community and the private sector are also expected to participate in maintaining compliance with regulations to preserve mangroves. The government should monitor and enforce regulations related to ecotourism and support the development of mangrove ecotourism so that its benefits are sustainable.