Environmental Assessment of Land Surface Temperature Using Remote Sensing Technology
Keywords:intensity, Landsat-8, land use, linear regression, urban heat islands
The rapid growth of urbanization exposes the environment to severe issues that threaten the quality of life. High land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most prominent issues in large cities where anthropogenic activities are accumulated, energy consumption and gas emissions increase, forming urban heat islands (UHI). In this research, the LST and the UHI formations were used as indicators to inspect and evaluate the environmental status of Kuwait’s urban area, which recently recorded a notable rise in air temperature. The LST spatial and temporal changes were examined and analyzed by utilizing satellite images of Landsat-8 for the period 2013–2020. The relationship between LST and air temperature was determined using the linear regression method. UHIs formation sites were investigated on different surfaces using the land use map. Results revealed that the LST average increased by 3°C in 2020 within seven years, and a strong positive relationship was observed between the LST and the air temperature. The UHI was mainly concentrated in industrial areas, oil fields, and airports. Moreover, the LST in the rural area reached 41.47°C, which is 4°C higher than it was in 2013. UHI intensity was calculated to assess the extent of variability in the LST between urban and rural areas; this intensity was lower in 2020 than in 2013 due to vegetation reduction in 2020. The continuous rise of the LST in Kuwait could lead to an inevitable environmental issue. Vegetation and water bodies play a significant role in moderating the LST, and these types of land coverage are rare in Kuwait. This research may contribute to controlling the temperature rise in UHI accumulation areas by following appropriate environmental solutions, sustainable urban planning, and encouraging the greening process.
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