Research into Heavy Metals Pollution of Atmosphere Applying Moss as Bioindicator: a Literature Review
Keywords:Heavy metal, mosses, atmospheric pollution, bioindicator, ion exchange, uptake efficiency, sampling, ICP - AES, ICP - MS, FAAS, GFAAS.
Atmospheric pollution causes serious damage for human health and to all natural ecosystems. Nowadays, the biggest provocative of atmospheric pollution is anthropogenic human activities and transport sector, main pollutants being heavy metals (HM).
Biomonitoring of HM pollution of atmosphere by mosses is one of the most popular, perspective and cost - effective method to control, detect and evaluate changes in the air quality. The most important environmental features of mosses as a suitable tool of biomonitoring are: rootless, large surface, wide - spread population, a habit to grow in groups, long life - cycle, survival in a high - polluted environment, an ability to obtain nutrients from wet and dry deposition.This literature review presents environmental properties of mosses, what makes them to be suitable for biomonitoring, HM deposition trends in some European countries during 1990-2005/6, methodology of sampling and chemical analysis, a summary of strengths and weaknesses of the most popular HM analysis techniques in Europe.
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